SHANKAR, PREN STATEMENT 2022

References:

1 Members of PREN – PRO ELEPHANT NETWORK
2 Dr Rob Atkinson & Dr Keith Lindsay, 2022. Expansive, diverse habitats are vital for the welfare of elephants in captivity
3 Poole J & Granli P. 2009. Mind and movement: Meeting the interests of elephants. In: Forthman DL, Kane LF & Waldau PF (Eds.) An Elephant in the Room: The Science and Well-being of Elephants in Captivity. Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine’s Center for Animals and Public Policy, Tufts University, pp.2-21.

4 Williams, E, Chadwick, CL, Yon, L & Asher, L (2018) A review of current indicators of welfare in captive elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus). Animal Welfare, 27(3): 235-249
5 Mason G. J. 1991. Stereotypies: a critical review. Animal Behaviour, 41:1015-1037.; Kurt F & Garaï M. 2001. Stereotypies in captive Asian Elephants- a symptom of social isolation. Scientific Progress Reports in: A Research Update of Elephants and Rhinos. Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna June 7-11,2001. pp.57-63.

7 Clubb R., Rowcliffe M., Lee P., Mar K.U., Moss C. & Mason G.J. 2008. Compromised survivorship. Science, 322:1649. Wiese & Willis 2004 Calculation of longevity and life expectancy in captive Elephants

8Dr Rob Atkinson & Dr Keith Lindsay, 2022. Expansive, diverse habitats are vital for the welfare of elephants in captivity 

9 Rob Slotow et al., “Older Bull Elephants Control Young Males,” Nature 408, no. 6811 (2000): 425–26, https://doi.org/10.1038/35044191;

10 G. A. Bradshaw and Allan N. Schore, “How Elephants Are Opening Doors: Developmental Neuroethology, Attachment and Social Context,” Ethology 113, no. 5 (2007): 426–36, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.2007.01333.x;


11 Graeme Shannon et al., “Effects of Social Disruption in Elephants Persist Decades after Culling,” Frontiers in Zoology 10, no. 1 (2013), https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-9994-10-62;

12 G. A. Bradshaw et al., “Elephant Breakdown,” Nature 433, no. 7028 (2005): 807–807, https://doi.org/10.1038/433807a ; Shannon, G., Slotow, R., Durant, S. M., Sayialel, K. N., Poole, J., Moss, C., & McComb, K. J. F. i. Z. (2013), Effects of social disruption in elephants persist decades after culling. Frontiers in Zoology, 10(1): 62. doi:10.1186/1742-9994-10-62 ; Graeme Shannon et al., “Effects of Social Disruption in Elephants Persist Decades after Culling,” Frontiers in Zoology 10, no. 1 (2013), https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-9994-10-62; G. A. Bradshaw et al., “Elephant Breakdown,” Nature 433, no. 7028 (2005): 807–807, https://doi.org/10.1038/433807a.