SHANKAR


[1] Members of PREN – PRO ELEPHANT NETWORK

[2] From safety to well-being — Delhi Zoo reinvents itself (thepatriot.in)

[3] Video of Shankar September 2021 

[4] Shankar at New Delhi Zoo in India – Elephant Encyclopedia and Database

[5] M. Tuomisto 2019 The effect of friendships on the health of the Asian elephant Tuomisto_Matleena_opinnayte.pdf (utupub.fi) ; Goldenberg et al 2014 Controlling for behavioural state reveals social dynamics among male African elephants

(6 )Naoko Irie et al, 2009. Elephant psychology: What we know and what we would like to know

(7) Jacobs et al. 2021 Putative neural consequences of captivity for elephants and cetaceans

[8] Professor Lori Marino 2021 Big Brains in Small Spaces – the Impact of Confinement on the Brains of Cetaceans and Elephants – Bing video

[9] Dr K Lindsay 2017 Solitary elephants in Japan https://elephantsinjapan.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/EIJ_Final_report_ENG_web.pdf

[10] Clubb, R. and Mason, G. (2003). Captivity effects on wide-ranging carnivores. Nature 425: 463–474. 

[11] Ullrey et al 1997 Elephants: Nutrition and dietary husbandry

[12] Meehan et al 2016 determining connections between the daily lives of zoo elephants and their welfare.

[13] Greco et al 2016 Using epidemiology to better understand stereotypic behaviour in elephants in zoos

[14] Clubb R., Rowcliffe M., Lee P., Mar K.U., Moss C. & Mason G.J. 2008. Compromised survivorship in zoo elephants. Science, 322:1649.

[15] Wiese & Willis 2004 Calculation of longevity and life expectancy in captive elephants

[16]Bradshaw et al, 2005. Elephant Breakdown; Bell Rizzolo J. et al, 20016. Prevalence and Patterns of Complex PTSD in Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) 

[17] C.M. Doyle, personal communication, November 4, 2020

[18] Sukumar R. 2003. The Living Elephants. Evolutionary Ecology, Behavior and Conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 

[19] Lewis KD, Shepherdson DJ, Owens T & Keele M. 2009. A survey of elephant husbandry and foot health in North American zoos. Zoo Biology, 29(2):221-36.

[20]   Poole & Granli 2008 Mind & Movement

[21]  Moss CJ & Poole JH 1983. Relationships and Social Structure of African Elephants. In: Primate Social Relationships; An integrated approach. R Hinde (Ed). Blackwell Publ

[22] Goldenberg SZ & Wittemyer G. 2020. Elephant behavior toward the dead: A review and insights from field observations. Primates, 61:119–128.

[23] Marino L. 2013. Humans, dolphins, and moral inclusivity. In: R. Corbey & A. Lanjouw (eds.), The politics of species: Reshaping our relationships with other animals. Cambridge University Press, pp.95-105.; Bradshaw GA & Schore AN. 2007. How elephants are opening doors: Developmental neuroethology, attachment and social context. Ethology,113(5), 426–436.; Derham T & Mathews, F. 2020. Elephants as refugees. People and Nature, 2:103–110.  

[24] Poole J. & Moss C. 2008. Elephant sociality and complexity In: Wemmer C. & Christen C.A. (Eds) Elephants and Ethics. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. pp.69– 100

[25] Bates L.A., Lee P.C., Njiraini N., Poole J. H., Sayialel K., Sayialel S., Moss C. J. & Byrne R.W. 2008. Do elephants show empathy? Journal of consciousness Studies, 15(10-11):204-225

[26] Blattner C.E.2019. The recognition of animal sentience by the law. Journal of Animal Ethics, 9(2):121-136 https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/janimalethics.9.2.0121

[27] Wiese & Willis 2004 Calculation of longevity and life expectancy in captive elephants;  Rizzolo JB & Bradshaw GA. 2016. Prevalence and patterns of complex PTSD in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Proceedings of Asian elephants in culture and nature. International Conference on Asian Elephants in Culture & Nature, Sri Lanka. pp.291-297. ;  Clubb R., Rowcliffe M., Lee P., Mar K.U., Moss C. & Mason G.J. 2008. Compromised survivorship in zoo elephants. Science, 322:1649

[28] Romero LM. 2004. Physiological stress in ecology: lessons from biomedical research. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 19(5):249-255.; Bondi CO, Rodriguez G, Gould GG, Frazer A & Morilak DA. 2008. Chronic unpredictable stress induces a cognitive deficit and anxiety-like behavior in rats that is prevented by chronic antidepressant drug treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33:320-331.

[29] CZA Circular banning elephants from zoos.pdf

[30] Liv Baker et al, 2020. Asian elephant rescue, rehabilitation and rewilding

[31] Cher rescued an elephant then sang him ‘My Way’ – CNN