2. Naoko Irie et al, 2009. Elephant psychology: What we know and what we would like to know
3. Professor Lori Marino 2021 Big Brains in Small Spaces – the Impact of Confinement on the Brains of Cetaceans and Elephants – Bing video
4. Clubb R., Rowcliffe M., Lee P., Mar K.U., Moss C. & Mason G.J. 2008. Compromised survivorship in zoo elephants. Science, 322:1649.
5. Wiese & Willis 2004 Calculation of longevity and life expectancy in captive elephants
6.Bradshaw et al, 2005. Elephant Breakdown; Bell Rizzolo J. et al, 20016. Prevalence and Patterns of Complex PTSD in Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)
7. Mason G. J. 1991. Stereotypies: a critical review. Animal Behaviour, 41:1015-1037.; Kurt F & Garaï M. 2001. Stereotypies in captive Asian elephants- a symptom of social isolation. Scientific Progress Reports in: A Research Update of Elephants and Rhinos. Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna June 7-11,2001. pp.57-63.
8.David M. Peña-Guzmán, 2017. Can nonhuman animals commit suicide? Humanities and Liberal Studies San Francisco State University
9. Lindsay K, 2017. Solitary Elephants in Japan EIJ_Final_report_ENG_web.pdf (elephantsinjapan.com)
10. Poole J & Granli P. 2009. Mind and movement: Meeting the interests of elephants. In: Forthman DL, Kane LF & Waldau PF (Eds.) An Elephant in the Room: The Science and Well-being of Elephants in Captivity. Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine’s Center for Animals and Public Policy, Tufts University, pp.2-21.
11. Sukumar R. 2003. The Living Elephants. Evolutionary Ecology, Behavior and Conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
12. Lewis KD, Shepherdson DJ, Owens T & Keele M. 2009. A survey of elephant husbandry and foot health in North American zoos. Zoo Biology, 29(2):221-36.
13. Marino L. 2013. Humans, dolphins, and moral inclusivity. In: R. Corbey & A. Lanjouw (eds.), The politics of species: Reshaping our relationships with other animals. Cambridge University Press, pp.95-105.; Bradshaw GA & Schore AN. 2007. How elephants are opening doors: Developmental neuroethology, attachment and social context. Ethology,113(5), 426–436.; Derham T & Mathews, F. 2020. Elephants as refugees. People and Nature, 2:103–110.
14. Rizzolo JB & Bradshaw GA. 2016. Prevalence and patterns of complex PTSD in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Proceedings of Asian elephants in culture and nature. International Conference on Asian Elephants in Culture & Nature, Sri Lanka. pp.291-297.
15. Romero LM. 2004. Physiological stress in ecology: lessons from biomedical research. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 19(5):249-255.; Bondi CO, Rodriguez G, Gould GG, Frazer A & Morilak DA. 2008. Chronic unpredictable stress induces a cognitive deficit and anxiety-like behavior in rats that is prevented by chronic antidepressant drug treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33:320-331.
16. Garai M. 2019. Ibid.
17. How to Move Your Elephant During a Pandemic – The New York Times (nytimes.com)
18. Last Performing Circus Elephant of Chile is Rescued and Moved to New Sanctuary to Live Out Her Golden Years (goodnewsnetwork.org)
19. Alaska’s only elephant heads to California (nbcnews.com)
20. Pakistan to relocate lonely elephant to Cambodia sanctuary, South Asia News & Top Stories – The Straits Times
21. NhRP. 2020. Islamabad High Court Recognizes the Rights of Nonhuman Animals. Non-human Rights Project, May 21 2020. https://www.nonhumanrights.org/media-center/media-release-5-21-20-islamabad-high-court-recognizes-animal-rights/
22. Liv Baker et al, 2020. Asian elephant rescue, rehabilitation and rewilding
23. The Elephant Sanctuary in Tennessee
24. Global Sanctuary for Elephants – Elephant Sanctuary Brazil (globalelephants.org)
25. Elephant Valley Project (EVP) – Elephant Sanctuary, Mondulkiri Cambodia
26. Performing Animal Welfare Society — PAWS (pawsweb.org)
27. Cher rescued an elephant then sang him ‘My Way’ – CNN