2. Naoko Irie et al, 2009. Elephant psychology: What we know and what we would like to know
3. Professor Lori Marino 2021 Big Brains in Small Spaces – the Impact of Confinement on the Brains of Cetaceans and Elephants – Bing video 

4. Clubb R., Rowcliffe M., Lee P., Mar K.U., Moss C. & Mason G.J. 2008. Compromised survivorship in zoo elephants. Science, 322:1649.
5. Wiese & Willis 2004 Calculation of longevity and life expectancy in captive elephants
6.Bradshaw et al, 2005. Elephant Breakdown; Bell Rizzolo J. et al, 20016. Prevalence and Patterns of Complex PTSD in Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)
7. Mason G. J. 1991. Stereotypies: a critical review. Animal Behaviour, 41:1015-1037.; Kurt F & Garaï M. 2001. Stereotypies in captive Asian elephants- a symptom of social isolation. Scientific Progress Reports in: A Research Update of Elephants and Rhinos. Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna June 7-11,2001. pp.57-63.
8.David M. Peña-Guzmán, 2017. Can nonhuman animals commit suicide? Humanities and Liberal Studies San Francisco State University

9. Lindsay K, 2017. Solitary Elephants in Japan EIJ_Final_report_ENG_web.pdf (
10. Poole J & Granli P. 2009. Mind and movement: Meeting the interests of elephants. In: Forthman DL, Kane LF & Waldau PF (Eds.) An Elephant in the Room: The Science and Well-being of Elephants in Captivity. Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine’s Center for Animals and Public Policy, Tufts University, pp.2-21.
11. Sukumar R. 2003. The Living Elephants. Evolutionary Ecology, Behavior and Conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
12. Lewis KD, Shepherdson DJ, Owens T & Keele M. 2009. A survey of elephant husbandry and foot health in North American zoos. Zoo Biology, 29(2):221-36.
13. Marino L. 2013. Humans, dolphins, and moral inclusivity. In: R. Corbey & A. Lanjouw (eds.), The politics of species: Reshaping our relationships with other animals. Cambridge University Press, pp.95-105.; Bradshaw GA & Schore AN. 2007. How elephants are opening doors: Developmental neuroethology, attachment and social context. Ethology,113(5), 426–436.; Derham T & Mathews, F. 2020. Elephants as refugees. People and Nature, 2:103–110.
14. Rizzolo JB & Bradshaw GA. 2016. Prevalence and patterns of complex PTSD in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Proceedings of Asian elephants in culture and nature. International Conference on Asian Elephants in Culture & Nature, Sri Lanka. pp.291-297.
15. Romero LM. 2004. Physiological stress in ecology: lessons from biomedical research. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 19(5):249-255.; Bondi CO, Rodriguez G, Gould GG, Frazer A & Morilak DA. 2008. Chronic unpredictable stress induces a cognitive deficit and anxiety-like behavior in rats that is prevented by chronic antidepressant drug treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33:320-331.
16. Garai M. 2019. Ibid.
17. How to Move Your Elephant During a Pandemic – The New York Times (
18. Last Performing Circus Elephant of Chile is Rescued and Moved to New Sanctuary to Live Out Her Golden Years (
19. Alaska’s only elephant heads to California (
20. Pakistan to relocate lonely elephant to Cambodia sanctuary, South Asia News & Top Stories – The Straits Times
21. NhRP. 2020. Islamabad High Court Recognizes the Rights of Nonhuman Animals. Non-human Rights Project, May 21 2020.

22. Liv Baker et al, 2020. Asian elephant rescue, rehabilitation and rewilding
23. The Elephant Sanctuary in Tennessee
24. Global Sanctuary for Elephants – Elephant Sanctuary Brazil ( 

25. Elephant Valley Project (EVP) – Elephant Sanctuary, Mondulkiri Cambodia
26. Performing Animal Welfare Society — PAWS (
27. Cher rescued an elephant then sang him ‘My Way’ – CNN