[2] Dr Rob Atkinson & Dr Keith Lindsay, 2022. Expansive, diverse habitats are vital for the welfare of elephants in captivity

[3] Poole J & Granli P. 2009. Mind and movement: Meeting the interests of elephants. In: Forthman DL, Kane LF & Waldau PF (Eds.) An Elephant in the Room: The Science and Well-being of Elephants in Captivity. Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine’s Center for Animals and Public Policy, Tufts University, pp.2-21. 

[4] Williams, E, Chadwick, CL, Yon, L & Asher, L (2018) A review of current indicators of welfare in captive elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus). Animal Welfare, 27(3): 235-249

[5] Mason G. J. 1991. Stereotypies: a critical review. Animal Behaviour, 41:1015-1037.; Kurt F & Garaï M. 2001. Stereotypies in captive Asian Elephants- a symptom of social isolation. Scientific Progress Reports in: A Research Update of Elephants  and Rhinos. Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna June 7-11,2001. pp.57-63.

[6] Romero LM. 2004. Physiological stress in ecology: lessons from biomedical research. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 19(5):249-255.; Bondi CO, Rodriguez G, Gould GG, Frazer A & Morilak DA. 2008. Chronic unpredictable stress induces a cognitive deficit and anxiety-like behavior in rats that is prevented by chronic antidepressant drug treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33:320-331.

[7] Professor Bob Jacobs et al, 2021. Putative neural consequences of captivity for Elephants and cetaceans (PDF) Putative neural consequences of captivity for Elephants and cetaceans (

[8] Clubb R., Rowcliffe M., Lee P., Mar K.U., Moss C. & Mason G.J. 2008. Compromised survivorship. Science, 322:1649. Wiese & Willis 2004 Calculation of longevity and life expectancy in captive Elephants